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climates

Very Cold - A very cold climate is defined as a region with approximately 9,000 heating degree days or greater (65°F basis) or greater and less than 12,600 heating degree days (65°F basis).

Cold - A cold climate is defined as a region with approximately 5,400 heating degree days (65°F basis) or greater and less than approximately 9,000 heating degree days (65°F basis).

Mixed-Humid - A mixed-humid and warm-humid climate is defined as a region that receives more than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 4,500 cooling degree days (50°F basis) or greater and less than approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis) and less than approximately 5,400 heating degree days (65°F basis) and where the average monthly outdoor temperature drops below 45°F during the winter months.

Hot-Humid - A hot-humid climate is defined as a region that receives more than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis) or greater and where the monthly average outdoor temperature remains above 45°F throughout the year. This definition characterizes a region that is similar to the ASHRAE definition of hot-humid climates where one or both of the following occur:

  • a 67°F r higher wet bulb temperature for 3,000 or more hours during the warmest six consecutive months of the year; or
  • a 73°F or higher wet bulb temperature for 1,500 or more hours during the warmest six consecutive months of the year.

Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry - A hot-dry climate is defined as region that receives less than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis)or greater and where the monthly average outdoor temperature remains above 45°F throughout the year.

A warm-dry and mixed-dry climate is defined as a region that receives less than 20 inches of annual precipitation with approximately 4,500 cooling degree days (50°F basis) or greater and less than approximately 6,300 cooling degree days (50°F basis) and less than approximately 5,400 heating degree days (65°F basis) and where the average monthly outdoor temperature drops below 45°F during the winter months.

Marine - A marine climate meets is defined as a region where all of the following occur:

  • a mean temperature of the coldest month between 27°F and 65°F;
  • a mean temperature of the warmest month below 72°F;
  • at least four months with mean temperatures over 50°F; and
  • a dry season in the summer, the month with the heaviest precipitation in the cold season has at least three times as much precipitation as the month with the least precipitation.

information

Building Science Insights are short discussions on a particular topic of general interest. They are intended to highlight one or more building science principles. The discussion is informal and sometimes irreverent but never irrelevant.

Building Science Digests provide building professionals from different disciplinary backgrounds with concise overview of important building science topics. Digests explain the theory behind each topic and then translate this theory into practical information.

Published Articles aare a selected set of articles written by BSC personnel and published in professional and trade magazines that address building science topics. For example, our work has appeared in Fine Homebuilding, Home Energy, ASHRAE's High Performance Buildings, The Journal of Building Enclosure Design and The Journal of Building Physics. We thank these publications for their gracious permission to republish.

Conference Papers are peer-reviewed papers published in conference proceedings.

Research Reports are technical reports written for researchers but accessible to design professionals and builders. These reports typically provide an in-depth study of a particular topic or describe the results of a research project. They are often peer reviewed and also provide support for advice given in our Building Science Digests.

Building America Reports are technical reports funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research program.

Designs That Work are residential Case Studies and House Plans developed by BSC to be appropriate for residential construction in specific climate zones. Case Studies provide a summary of results for homes built in partnership with BSC’s Building America team. The case study typically includes enclosure and mechanical details, testing performed, builder profile, and unique project highlights. House Plans are fully integrated construction drawing sets that include floor plans, framing plans and wall framing elevations, exterior elevations, building and wall sections, and mechanical and electrical plans.

Enclosures That Work are Building Profiles and High R-Value Assemblies developed by BSC to be appropriate for residential construction in specific climate zones. Building Profiles are residential building cross sections that include enclosure and mechanical design recommendations. Most profiles also include field expertise notes, material compatibility analysis, and climate challenges. High R-Value Assemblies are summaries of the results of BSC's ongoing High R-Value Enclosure research — a study that BSC has undertaken for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research program to identify and evaluate residential assemblies that cost-effectively provide 50 percent improvement in thermal resistance.

Guides and Manuals are "how-to" documents, giving advice and instructions on specific building techniques and methods. Longer guides and manuals include background information to help facilitate a strong understanding of the building science behind the hands-on advice. This section also contains two quick, easy-to-read series. The IRC FAQ series answers common questions about the building science approach to specific building tasks (for example, insulating a basement). The READ THIS: Before... series offers guidelines and recommendations for everyday situations such as moving into a new home or deciding to renovate.

Information Sheets are short, descriptive overviews of basic building science topics and are useful both as an introduction to building science and as a handy reference that can be easily printed for use in the field, in a design meeting, or at the building permit counter. Through illustrations, photographs, and straightforward explanations, each Information Sheet covers the essential aspects of a single topic. Common, avoidable mistakes are also examined in the What's Wrong with this Project? and What's Wrong with this Practice? mini-series.

Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

The goal of this project was to create a home with a high R-value enclosure, a right-sized mechanical system, energy efficient lighting, appliances, windows and doors, and also have the possibility of adding site-generated power at some point in the future. To ensure that solar-generated power could be successfully installed, the house was sited with a large south facing sloped roof. The high R-value enclosure was achieved through 4” of rigid foam insulation on the interior of the basement walls, the exterior of the stud walls and on top of the roof rafters. Many details (in particular, window and door installation) needed to be developed in order to ensure Habitat’s volunteer labor could successfully implement the critical water management and air barrier details.

Cold
Building America Reports
Armin Rudd

The combination of tankless hot water heating and solar hot water heating creates some challenges that we have been researching with our builder partner, Coastal Habitats/Coastal Green Building Solutions, Hilton Head Island, SC. Sending solar preheated water into a tankless water heater can cause wide temperature fluctuations at the domestic taps. The purpose of this research project is to design and install a solar hot water system that features a tankless water heater integrated with a solar hot water panel such that consistent temperature control can be achieved at the domestic taps. This report is an excerpt from the 2008 Building Science Corporation Industry Team Building America Annual Report.

Building America Reports
Joseph Lstiburek, Alex Lukachko

Following the almost complete destruction of Greensburg, Kansas by a tornado in May, 2007, Building Science Corporation (BSC) was contracted to provide example house plans, support for the reconstruction of energy efficient houses and training for builders and trades. This report describes the planning, execution, and results of BSC’s builder training program in Greensburg. The end result of BSC’s efforts in co-operation with NREL, IBACOS and other organizations resulted in the exposure of dozens of builders and homeowners to energy efficient, affordable, durable and healthy construction techniques.

Building America Reports
Joseph Lstiburek, Alex Lukachko

Following the almost complete destruction of Greensburg, Kansas by a tornado in May, 2007, Building Science Corporation (BSC) was contracted to provide example house plans, support for the reconstruction of energy efficient houses and training for builders and trades. This report describes the results of BSC’s work to construct more than 20 energy efficient, affordable, durable houses in Greensburg, Kansas. Twenty houses have been constructed meeting greater than 40 percent whole-house energy savings compared to the BA Benchmark. The approach demonstrated performance benefits and cost savings such that the development group (Mennonite Housing) has adopted the technology for all of their projects in Kansas.

Building America Reports
Alex Lukachko, Joseph Lstiburek

This paper discusses Building America whole house systems research within the broad effort to reduce or eliminate the environmental impact of building and provides specific recommendations for future Building America research based on Building Science Corporation’s experience with several recent projects involving green home building programs. The four main recommendations include understanding the context, maintaining objectivity, engaging builders in green home building activity, and broadening scope. With due consideration given to these recommendations, Building America research is found to be well positioned to derive mutual benefits from continued involvement with green building programs to move the residential housing industry towards sustainability.

Building America Reports
Peter Baker

Given what happened in New Orleans during hurricane Katrina, changes in the way we build are needed. Looking to key sustainability concepts of durability and energy efficiency, new flood resistant design concepts were developed. A systems engineering approach was used, that considered all aspects of house design, to develop a house plan that will make these new design concepts reality. Durability upgrades affected the structural requirements, water and vapor management, and material choice. While these upgrades result in an increase in the initial cost of the house, material use and energy efficiency strategies were examined to offset a portion of the initial cost, and provide a means to pay back the initial investment over time.

Hot-Humid
Building America Reports
Armin Rudd

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program, a partnership was developed with a builder who had learned from experience that just building to code left a lot to be desired from an overall performance perspective. He came to believe that real value lies in implementing building science principals within a systems engineering approach to high-performance housing. A high-performance home will also reduce a builder’s risk of warranty/service call-back and customer complaint, leaving more room for profitability. The whole-house performance approach described here builds a framework of understanding that starts with principals that lead to evaluation of options, that leads to a coherent plan, that leads to quality execution of producing high-performance homes.

Hot-Humid
Building America Reports
Armin Rudd

The primary purpose of this field test was to characterize the uniformity of room-to-room ventilation air distribution under various operating conditions by examining multi-zone tracer gas decay curves and calculating local age-of-air. The tests were conducted in two Sacramento houses, and were designed to allow direct, quantitative comparisons of various ventilation approaches, which could potentially be factored into ventilation rate trade-offs in future updates to ASHRAE Standard 62.2. Analysis of the measured data showed that reciprocal age-of-air analysis worked well to characterize room-to-room uniformity of ventilation air distribution as long as the house was well mixed at the beginning of the test, and weather conditions were sufficiently steady-state.

Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry
Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

This report summarizes indoor temperature and humidity data that have been collected from houses by the Building Science Consortium of the US Department of Energy Building America Program. Data were collected at 43 houses from May 2000 through February 2005. The houses are located in various southern cities, including Houston, Austin, Dallas, Jacksonville, Fort Meyers, Orlando, and Oklahoma City. Most sites were located in the hot, humid gulf coast region. The data collected from the test homes were analyzed to understand when and for how long high humidity occurred in these homes. The analysis also evaluated how closely high humidity and the need for dehumidification corresponded to cooling operation.

Hot-Humid
Building America Reports
Armin Rudd

High performance space conditioning and control systems that match the high performance of Building America enclosures are necessary to meet performance targets of DOE residential research program. Conditioning systems with integrated mechanical ventilation and year-around temperature and humidity control are necessary. The most significant climate-specific need is for system-integrated dehumidification for humidity control without overcooling the space. Cost-effective dehumidification without overcooling will enable continued and further reduction of sensible loads (including high-performance glazing) that would otherwise exacerbate humidity control problems in humid climates.

Mixed-HumidHot-Humid
Building America Reports
Armin Rudd, Kohta Ueno, Joseph Lstiburek

Twenty homes were tested and monitored in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, to evaluate the humidity control performance and operating cost of six different integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems that could be applied by production homebuilders. Results showed that energy efficiency measures, combined with controlled mechanical ventilation, change the sensible and latent cooling load fractions such that supplemental dehumidification, in addition to that provided by the central cooling system, is required to maintain indoor relative humidity below 60% throughout the year.

Hot-Humid
Building America Reports
Armin Rudd

This is one of eleven projects from the full report of Building Science Consortium’s research efforts for 2004. The research program is aimed towards advanced building systems that have the potential to reduce residential building energy use by 50-60%. It is based on evaluation of market trends, industry partner needs, and initial results from our team’s system engineering research program. A total of eleven individual research projects were detailed in this report. This project report explores the development of more cost-effective, integrated supplemental dehumidification systems.

Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

SNAPSHOT stands for Short, Non-destructive Approach to Provide Significant House Operation Thresholds. It is a test form used in the Building America program to ascertain house performance and specifications.

Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

SNAPSHOT stands for Short, Non-destructive Approach to Provide Significant House Operation Thresholds. It is a test form used in the Building America program to ascertain house performance and specifications. This technique incorporates the field characterization of critical parameters, for indoor environment, thermal comfort, air delivery and distribution systems as well as their interaction with the building envelope. The data collected will then be used as direct inputs to energy prediction tools, such as REM/Design or DOE-2. The major parts of the testing include building envelope leakage, duct leakage test, and differential pressurization of zones. Also, the form provides a place to collect information on mechanical equipment and ventilation systems.

Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

Using four Building Science Consortium Building America community-scale projects, this paper investigates the nature, strength, and durability of connections between high performance dwellings and developments. There are few inherent or natural links between the two (particularly in the production home setting); the connections must be either imposed (by government entities) or created in the marketplace. Because communities often involve two very distinct players—the developer and the builders—and the project often spans up to 10 years, it is challenging to develop and sustain either an imposed or marketed system with strong and meaningful links between high performance homes and neighborhoods.

ColdHot-Dry/Mixed-Dry
Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

Not all low-e glass is created equal with regard to color filtering. Some low-e glass is remarkably close to #1-clear glass. Others filter out substantial portions of red and/or blue light, creating color distortion of transmitted. The lesson learned here is similar to the one manufacturers of compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) have learned: high performance is not just about energy—it’s about achieving energy savings without sacrificing other aspects of performance, such as color rendering.

Building America Reports
Joseph Lstiburek

Conditioned crawlspaces perform better than vented crawlspaces in terms of safety, health, comfort, durability and energy consumption. Conditioned crawlspaces also do not cost more to construct than vented crawlspaces. Despite that, there is not a significant trend towards the construction of conditioned crawlspaces. The model codes do not allow the construction of “unvented” crawlspaces – except in very limited circumstances, but they do allow the construction of “conditioned” crawlspaces. The distinction is important and necessary. Four conditioned crawlspaces were constructed and monitored over a 12-month period. The data is presented and used to support the current code requirements for the construction of conditioned crawlspaces.

Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

Heat loss through uninsulated basement walls can account for up to one-third of the heat loss from an average home. Installing insulation on basement walls is often inexpensive, easy to accomplish and frequently combined with “finishing the basement.” Unfortunately, basement walls are often damp or are only dry on the surface because of evaporation of water into the basement air. Installing wood framing or fiberglass batts directly against basement walls subsequently leads to mold growth and decay of the wood due to fungal growth. Insulating basement walls can be safely accomplished by assessing the moisture conditions of these walls and applying some basic "building science" to the design process.

Building America Reports
Building Science Corporation

Perhaps the single most challenging BSC performance for Building America production homebuilders is that all ducts and HVAC equipment must be within the conditioned space (this means no ducts in outside walls and no ducts or air handlers in garages, vented attics or vented crawlspaces). It’s an important and even driving element for each of the four case studies in this report. So, why all the heartache over this single design element? There are really two sources of the heartache—how important it is to locate all ducts and equipment in conditioned space and how hard it can be for homebuilders to achieve this.

Building America Reports
Armin Rudd, Joseph Lstiburek, Kohta Ueno

Twenty homes were tested and monitored in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, to evaluate the humidity control performance and operating cost of six different integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems that could be applied by production homebuilders. Results showed that energy efficiency measures, combined with controlled mechanical ventilation, change the sensible and latent cooling load fractions such that supplemental dehumidification, in addition to that provided by the central cooling system, is required to maintain indoor relative humidity below 60% throughout the year.

Hot-Humid

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